Jeff Masters Hurricane Blog

August 2023 was Earth’s hottest August on record » Yale Climate Connections

August 2023 smashed the record for hottest August in Earth’s history, spiking to a remarkable 1.25 degrees Celsius (2.25°F) above the 20th-century average, NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information reported September 14. NASABerkeley Earth, the Japan Meteorological Agency, and the European Copernicus Climate Change Service also rated August 2023 as the warmest August on record, crushing the previous August record by a huge margin. Global temperature analyses extend back to 1850 in the NOAA database.

Map of world showing land and ocean temperature percentiles for August 2023. Except for small areas around the poles, the map is almost completely red, denoting warmer, much warmer, and record warmest temperatures.
Figure 1. Departure of temperature from average for August 2023, the hottest August for the globe since record-keeping began in 1850. Record-warm temperatures covered nearly 13% of the world’s surface. (Image credit: NOAA/NCEI)

Land and ocean areas each had their warmest August on record in 2023, and August was the fifth consecutive month with record-high global ocean temperatures, which have been unusually extreme (see Tweet below).

North America, Asia, Africa, and South America each had their warmest August on record; Europe, and Oceania each had their second-warmest August. August broke the record in South America for greatest monthly departure of temperature from average for any month: +2.4 degrees Celsius (+4.32°F). As reported in our post on Monday, August ranked as the ninth-warmest August on record in the United States.

Earth has its hottest three-month period on record

The period June-August 2023 (summer in the Northern Hemisphere) was the hottest on record globally by a huge margin, according to NOAA. Because most of Earth’s land area is in the Northern Hemisphere, the June-August period is normally the planet’s warmest three months of the year for surface temperature; thus, June-August 2023 also ranks as the warmest of any three-month period in more than a century of record-keeping.

Asia, Africa, North America, South America and Oceania had their warmest June-August periods on record; Europe had its third-warmest summer on record, and the contiguous U.S. had its 15th-warmest summer on record.

According to an analysis by Climate Central, 3.9 billion people across the world suffered extreme temperatures made at least three times more likely by climate change for over 30 days during the June-August period; 1.5 billion people experienced extreme temperatures at this level for all 92 days of the June-August period. About 98% of the global population was exposed to extreme heat made at least two times more likely by human-caused global warming during this period.

2023 now very likely to be Earth’s warmest year on record

The year-to-date period of January-August is the second-warmest on record globally. And according to NOAA’s latest Global Annual Temperature Rankings Outlook and the statistical model it uses, there’s a 93% chance of 2023 being the warmest year on record. Note that this NOAA outlook is based purely on statistical comparison to past temperature trends and uses no forward-looking weather or climate model guidance, so it may still be an underestimate. Climate scientist Zeke Hausfather (see Tweet below) says 2023 is virtually certain to be the warmest year on record.

Using NASA data, summer 2023 was 1.4°C above the temperature of the 1880-1899 period, which is commonly called “preindustrial” (the difference between the 1951-1980 baseline reported on the NASA website and the 1880-1899 period is 0.226°C). Hausfather gives roughly a 50% chance 2023 will be at least 1.5 degrees Celsius above preindustrial temperatures. This is the target threshold for the stabilization of the long-term climate agreed upon in international climate negotiations. This year’s exceedance would very likely be just a temporary breach of the 1.5°C threshold, but the planet may start regularly exceeding this mark by the 2030s, especially if major emission cuts are not implemented by then.

El Niño intensifies to the “strong” category

El Niño conditions strengthened over the past month in the eastern tropical Pacific and have surpassed the “strong” threshold, according to NOAA’s September 14 discussion. Sea surface temperatures in the Niño-3.4 region were 1.6 degrees Celsius above average over the past week; a “strong” El Niño event is defined when these sea surface temperatures are in excess of 1.5 degrees Celsius above average. NOAA gave a 71% chance of the current event being defined as a strong El Niño for the November-January period and a 95% chance that El Niño conditions would continue through March 2024.

Arctic sea ice: eighth-lowest August extent on record

Arctic sea ice extent during August 2023 was the eighth-lowest in the 45-year satellite record, according to the National Snow and Ice Data Center. The shipping channels through the southern route of the Northwest Passage through Canadian waters opened to ice-free navigation during August. The Northeast Passage (or Northern Sea Route) along the northern coast of Russia was also open to ice-free navigation. The northern route of the Northwest Passage had the lowest ice coverage of any year except for the record-low year of 2011 but remained closed to ice-free navigation during August. The Arctic had its warmest August on record, according to NOAA.

Antarctic sea ice: lowest on record

Antarctic sea ice extent in August was by far the lowest on record, the fourth-consecutive month with a record low. However, ice growth during the month increased at a faster-than-average pace during the month over portions of the Antarctic waters.

A chart shows Greenland melt extent in 2023, with melt in 2023 spiking high above the 1981-2010 median, especially in July and August.
Figure 3. Melt extent in Greenland through August of 2023 (red line) compared to average (blue dashed line). (Image credit: National Snow and Ice Data Center)

Greenland: second-largest melt year on record

An unusual late-summer melting event in Greenland during August caused widespread melting on the Greenland ice sheet and was the largest melt event on record so late in the year. According to the National Snow and Ice Data Center, the extent of surface melt as of the end of August 2023 was the second-largest in the 45-year satellite record, trailing only the extreme melt year of 2012.

Notable global heat and cold marks for August 2023

The information below is courtesy of Maximiliano Herrera. Follow him on Twitter: @extremetemps

  • Hottest temperature in the Northern Hemisphere: 52.5°C (126.5°F) at Kanaquin, Iraq, August 11;
  • Coldest temperature in the Northern Hemisphere: -26.8°C (-16.2°F) at Summit, Greenland, August 19;
  • Hottest temperature in the Southern Hemisphere: 45.0°C (113.0°F) at Villamontes, Bolivia, August 21; and
  • Coldest temperature in the Southern Hemisphere: -82.0°C (-115.6°F) at Vostok, Antarctica, August 6.

Major weather stations in August: 228 all-time heat records, no all-time cold records

Among global stations with a record of at least 40 years, 228 set, not just tied, an all-time heat record in August, and no stations set an all-time cold record:

Otsu (Japan) max. 38.5°C, August 1;
Kurayoshi (Japan) max. 37.9°C, August 2;
Ashibe (Japan) max. 34.8°C, August 2;
Kuji (Japan) max. 36.4°C, August 3;
Susa (Japan) max. 37.3°C, August 3;
Odanozawa (Japan) max. 34.9°C, August 4;
Misawa (Japan) max. 37.0°C, August 5;
Iwate Matsuo (Japan) max. 35.7°C, August 5;
Yanagawa (Japan) max. 40.0°C, August 5;
Maizuru (Japan) max. 39.0°C, August 5;
Toyooka (Japan) max. 39.4°C, August 5;
Koriyama (Japan) max. 36.6°C, August 5;
Sasebo (Japan) max. 38.1°C, August 6;
Kudamatsu (Japan) max. 37.2°C, August 6;
Gunge (Japan) max. 37.8°C, August 6;
Ifrane (Morocco) max. 37.6°C, August 7;
Santarem (Portugal) max. 46.4°C, August 7;
Tapaste (Cuba) max. 37,2°C, August 7;
Batabano (Cuba) max. 36.9°C, August 7;
Portalegre (Portugal) max. 42.1°C, August 7;
Takanosu (Japan) max. 38.9°C, August 8;
Aikawa (Japan) max. 38.5°C, August 9;
Hamochi (Japan) max. 38.3°C, August 9;
Mikuni (Japan) max. 39.7°C, August 9;
Soria (Spain) max. 38.9°C, August 9;
Valencia Airport (Spain) max. 46.8°C, August 10;
Valencia City (Spain) max. 44.7°C, August 10;
Lliria (Spain) max. 45.4°C, August 10;
Carcaixent (Spain) max. 46.4°C, August 10;
Segorbe (Spain) max. 43.6°C, August 10;
Atzeneta (Spain) max. 44.4°C, August 10;
Chiva (Spain) max. 44.5°C, August 10;
Kyowa (Japan) max. 35.0°C, August 10;
Hakodate (Japan) max. 35.4°C, August 10;
Matsu (Japan) max. 35.3°C, August 10;
Ichiura (Japan) max. 37.2°C, August 10;
Goshogawara (Japan) max. 39.0°C, August 10;
Ajigasawa (Japan) max. 36.9°C, August 10;
Hirosaki (Japan) max. 39.3°C, August 10;
Kuroishi (Japan) max. 36.4°C, August 10;
Itoigawa (Japan) max. 39.3°C, August 10;
Tonami (Japan) max. 38.8°C, August 10;
Nanto Takamiya (Japan) max. 38.6°C, August 10;
Yatsuo (Japan) max. 39.0°C, August 10;
Nanao (Japan) max. 38.1°C, August 10;
Komatsu (Japan) max. 40.0°C, August 10;
Hakusan Kawachi (Japan) max. 37.4°C, August 10;
Kaga Nakatsuhara (Japan) max. 37.6°C, August 10;
Uzura (Japan) max. 35.0°C, August 10;
Agadir Airport (Morocco) max. 50.2°C, August 11;
Agadir (Morocco) max. 50.4°C, August 11: New national record high for Morocco;
Tan Tan (Morocco) max. 48.2°C, August 11;
Kirkuk (Iraq) max. 50.6°C, August 11;
Kozan (Turkey) max. 48.4°C, August 13;
Adana (Turkey) max. 45.7°C, August 13;
Osmaniye (Turkey) max. 45.6°C, August 13;
Hatay (Turkey) max. 45.5°C, August 13;
Nigde (Turkey) max. 39.7°C, August 13;
St. Croix (US Virgin Islands, USA) max. 35.6°C, August 14;
Kashiwazaki (Japan) max. 38.8°C, August 14;
Nusaybin (Turkey) max. 47.9°C, August 14;
Kilis (Turkey) max. 47.6 °C, August 14;
Kahramanmaras (Turkey) max. 46.8 °C, August 14;
Karaman (Turkey) max. 41.4 °C, August 14;
Kayseri (Turkey) max. 41.1 °C, August 14;
Konya (Turkey) max. 40.9 °C, August 14;
Aleppo (Syria) max. 47.4°C, August 14;
Mafraq (Jordan) max. 45.0°C, August 14;
Karabuk (Turkey) max. 45.2°C, August 15;
Bolu (Turkey) max. 42.8 °C, August 15;
Aksaray (Turkey) max. 40.8 °C, August 15;
Kutahya (Turkey) max. 41.4 °C, August 15;
Kirikkale (Turkey) max. 42.0 °C, August 15;
Eskisehir (Turkey) max. 41.5°C, August 15;
Burdur (Turkey) max. 41.6°C, August 16;
Isparta (Turkey) max. 40.2°C, August 16;
Oumu (Japan) max. 35.3°C, August 17;
Usak (Turkey) max. 41.9°C, August 18;
Alexandra (Louisiana, USA) max. 43.3°C, August 19;
Fukusaki (Japan) max. 38.9°C, August 20;
Agenosho (Japan) max. 35.7°C, August 20;
Civitavecchia (Italy) max. 37.9°C, August 20;
Barahona (Dominican Republic) max. 38.4°C, August 20;
Huntsville (Texas, USA) max. 44.4°C, August 20;
Wadayama (Japan) max. 38.3°C, August 21;
Lapalud (France) max. 42.7°C, August 21;
Savona (Italy) max. 39.1°C, August 21;
Puy St Martin (France) max. 43.5°C, August 22;
Orange (France) max. 42.7°C, August 22;
St Barthelemy de Vals (France) max. 42.5°C, August 22;
Sablons (France) max. 41.8°C, August 22;
Rosans (France) max. 41.1°C, August 22;
Cavillargues (France) max. 41.7°C, August 22;
Valence (France) max. 40.9°C, August 22;
Bordeaux Plan Lara (France) max. 40.8°C, August 22;
Alzon (France) max. 40.6°C, August 22;
Nelas (Portugal) max. 42.8°C, August 22;
Montalegre (Portugal) max. 37.5°C, August 22;
Luzim (Portugal) max. 39.8°C, August 22;
Durres (Albania) max. 41.4°C, August 22;
Sapporo (Japan) max. 36.3°C, August 23;
Rankoshi (Japan) max. 35.4°C, August 23;
Kutchan (Japan) max. 34.6°C, August 23;
Odate (Japan) max. 38.8°C, August 23;
Akita (Japan) max. 38.5°C, August 23;
Tobishima (Japan) max. 36.0°C, August 23;
Tortosa (Spain) max. 43.9°C, August 23;
Bilbao (Spain) max. 44.0°C, August 23;
Santander AP (Spain) max. 41.4°C, August 23;
Torino Caselle (Italy) max. 37.2°C, August 23;
Salindres (France) max. 44.4°C, August 23;
Lagrasse (France) max. 43.7°C, August 23;
Grospierres (France) max. 43.6°C, August 23;
Carcassonne (France) max. 43.2°C, August 23;
Argeliers (France) max. 43.1°C, August 23;
Cardet (France) max. 43.1°C, August 23;
Revel (France) max. 42.7°C, August 23;
Castelnaudary (France) max. 42.7°C, August 23;
Toulouse (France) max  42.4°C, August 23;
Limoux (France) max. 42.4°C, August 23;
Albi (France) max. 42.3°C, August 23;
Monteils (France) max. 41.8°C, August 23;
Laroque (France) max. 41.6°C, August 23;
Dourgne (France) max. 41.6°C, August 23;
Chomerac (France) max. 41.3°C, August 23;
Valdrome (France) max. 39.4°C, August 23;
Millau (France) max. 39.1°C, August 23;
Le Pont De Montvert (France) max. 38.8°C, August 23;
Colombies (France) max. 38.7°C, August 23;
Canel en Roussillon (France) max. 38.4°C, August 23;
Cambon el Salvergues (France) max. 37.4°C, August 23;
Glandage (France) max. 36.6°C, August 23;
St Sauveur (France) max. 36.0°C, August 23;
Nice Rimiez (France) max. 35.7°C, August 23;
Lus La Croix Haute (France) max. 35.7°C, August 23;
Mt. Aigoual (France) max. 30.4°C, August 23;
Massa (Italy) max. 40.6°C, August 23;
Ikutora (Japan) max. 34.9°C, August 24;
Takijiri (Japan) max. 32.4°C, August 24;
Naganuma (Japan) max. 35.2°C, August 24;
Otaki (Japan) max. 33.1°C, August 24;
Wakinosawa (Japan) max. 34.6°C, August 24;
Kanita (Japan) max. 34.6°C, August 24;
Shinjo (Japan) max. 37.8°C, August 24;
Rokkasho (Japan) max. 34.4°C, August 24;
Hobetsu (Japan) max. 34.8°C, August 24;
Hokuto (Japan) max. 34.5°C, August 24;
Matsumae (Japan) max. 34.2°C, August 24;
Oma (Japan) max. 32.9°C, August 24;
Logrono (Spain) max. 43.3°C, August 24;
Prato (Italy) max. 42.4°C, August 24;
Lyon (France) max. 41.4°C, August 24;
Auch (France) max. 42.6°C, August 24;
Montauban (France) max. 42.6°C, August 24;
Mirande (France) max. 42.9°C, August 24;
Agen (France) max. 42.5°C, August 24;
Reaup (France) max. 42.6°C, August 24;
Serignac (France) max. 42.4°C, August 24;
Tiranges (France) max. 42.1°C, August 24;
Beaucaire (France) max. 42.1°C, August 24;
Le Mas d’ Azil (France) max. 42.1°C, August 24;
Mornant (France) max. 41.7°C, August 24;
Amberieu (France) max. 41.2°C, August 24;
Savigneux (France) max. 41.2°C, August 24;
St Martin Curton (France) max. 41.1°C, August 24;
Nandax (France) max. 41.1°C, August 24;
Tournay (France) max. 41.0°C, August 24;
Benejacq (France) max. 41.0°C, August 24;
Challes les Eaux (France) max. 40.9°C, August 24;
St Symphorien (France) max. 40.8°C, August 24;
Lembeye (France) max. 40.7°C, August 24;
Chambery (France) max. 40.5°C, August 24;
Prayssas (France) max. 40.5°C, August 24;
Tarbes (France) max. 39.9°C, August 24;
Cerizols (France) max. 39.9°C, August 24;
St Julien sur Reyssouze (France) max. 40.5°C, August 24;
St Girons (France) max. 39.2°C, August 24;
Colombier Jeune (France) max. 37.4°C, August 24;
Lannemezan (France) max. 37.7°C, August 24;
Groisy (France) max. 37.0°C, August 24;
Pellafol (France) max. 36.1°C, August 24;
Tarmognon (France) max. 34.9°C, August 24;
Nyon (Switzerland) max. 38.5°C, August 24;
Payerne (Switzerland) max. 38.2°C, August 24;
Montana (Switzerland) max. 31.5°C, August 24;
Disentis (Switzerland) max. 33.5°C, August 24;
Grand Saint Bernard (Switzerland) max. 21.8°C, August 24;
Parma (Italy) max. 40.4°C, August 25;
Nakakineus (Japan) max. 33.8°C, August 25;
Shinshinotsu (Japan) max. 35.5°C, August 25;
Iwamizawa (Japan) max. 35.7°C, August 25;
Kimobetsu (Japan) max. 34.5°C, August 25;
Shibecha (Japan) max. 35.1°C, August 25;
Nukabira (Japan) max. 33.4°C, August 25;
Kamishihoro (Japan) max. 35.2°C, August 25;
Honbetsu (Japan) max. 36.3°C, August 25;
Shikaoi (Japan) max. 35.7°C, August 25;
Shari (Japan) max. 37.1°C, August 26;
Imabetsu (Japan) max. 33.7°C, August 26;
Slidell (Louisiana, USA) max. 42.2°C, August 26;
Hattiesburg (Mississippi, USA) max. 41.7°C, August 26;
Gulfport (Mississippi, USA) max. 41.7°C, August 26;
Pascagoula (Mississippi, USA) max. 41.1°C, August 26;
Picayune (Mississippi, USA) max. 41.1°C, August 26;
Mobile (Alabama, USA) max. 41.1°C, August 26;
Lufkin (Texas, USA) max. 43.9°C, August 27;
Port Arthur (Texas, USA) max. 43.9°C, August 27;
Beaumont (Texas, USA) max. 42.8°C, August 27;
New Orleans (Louisiana, USA) max. 40.6°C, August 27;
Lafayette (Louisiana, USA) max. 43.3°C, August 27;
Lake Charles (Louisiana,USA) max. 42.8°C, August 27;
De Quincy (Louisiana, USA) max.42.2°C, August 27;
Bay City (Texas, USA) max. 44.4°C, August 27;
New Iberia (Louisiana, USA) max. 42.8°C, August 27;
Houston Hobby (Texas, USA) max. 42.8°C, August 27;
Galliano (Louisiana, USA) max. 38.3°C, August 27;
Cape Erimo (Japan) max. 28.5°C, August 27;
Canefield Airport (Dominica) max. 36.6°C, August 27: New national record high for Dominica;
Mitsuishi (Japan) max. 33.4°C, August 28;
Shizunai (Japan) max. 33.8°C, August 28;
Urakawa (Japan) max. 31.5°C, August 28;
Vinnytsia (Ukraine) max. 38.2°C, August 29;
Saba Airport (Caribbean Netherlands) max. 34.4°C, August 29: New national record high for Saba;
Bikuni (Japan) max. 35.2°C, August 31;
Kakkumi (Japan) max. 33.4°C, August 31;
Esashi (Japan) max. 34.6°C, August 31;
Yokote (Japan) max. 39.2°C, August 31; and
Niitsu (Japan) max. 39.4°C, August 31.

Fourteen (plus two) all-time national/territorial heat records set or tied in 2023

As of the end of August, 14 nations or territories had set or tied an all-time national heat record in 2023; five of these records were set in August. Two nations, Laos and Vietnam, have beaten their old all-time heat record twice in 2023:

Thailand: 45.4°C (113.7°F) at Tak Agromet, April 15;
Laos: 42.7°C (108.9°F) at Luang Prabang, April 18; beaten one day later with 42.9°C (109.2°F) at Sayaburi, April 19; beaten again on May 6 and May 7 with 43.5°C (110.3°F) at Luang Prabang;
Vietnam: 44.1°C (111.4°F) at Hoi Xuan, May 6; beaten again with 44.1°C (111.4°F) at Tuong Duong, May 7;
Singapore: 37.0°C (98.6°F) at Ang Mo Kio, May 13 (tie);
Chad: 48.0°C (118.4°F) at Faya, May 25;
China: 52.2°C (126°F) at Sabao, July 16;
Vatican City: 42.9°C (109.2°F) at Roma Macao, July 18;
Cayman Islands: 35.3°C (95.5°F) at Owen Roberts Airport, July 22;
Albania: 44.0°C (111.2°F) at Kucova, July 25;
Morocco: 50.4C (122.7°F) at Agadir, August 11;
U.S. Virgin Islands (USA): 35.6°C (96.1°F) at St. Croix, August 14 (tie);
Dominica: 36.6°C (97.9°F) at Canefield Airport, August 27;
Aruba: 36.5°C (97.7°F) at Queen Beatrix Airport, August 28 (tie); and
Saba: 34.4°C (93.9°F) at Juancho Yrausquin Airport, August 29.

Three all-time national/territorial cold records set or tied in 2023

As of the end of August 2023, three nations or territories had set or tied an all-time national cold record:

Myanmar: -6.0°C (21.2°F) at Hakha, Jan. 17 (tied);
China: -53.0°C (-63.4°F) at Jintao, Jan. 22; and
Cyprus: -12.8°C (8°F) at Trodos Mt. Station, Feb. 8 (tied).

Sixty-five additional monthly national/territorial heat records and four additional monthly cold records beaten or tied

In addition to the 14 all-time heat records listed above (plus one, for the records set in two different months in Laos), 80 additional monthly all-time heat records have been set in 2023, for a total of 95 all-time monthly heat records:

  • Jan. (13): Czech Republic, Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Denmark, Poland, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania, Moldova, Ukraine, Cyprus, Nigeria
  • Feb. (4): Chile, Taiwan, Pakistan, Cyprus
  • March (3): Botswana, Vietnam, Taiwan
  • April (12): Cabo Verde, Botswana, Turkmenistan, Mauritius, Antigua and Barbuda, Spain, Morocco, Portugal, Andorra, Saba, St. Barthelemy, Laos
  • May (9): Mauritius, Solomon Islands, Botswana, Cambodia, Cocos Islands, Panama, Saba, Maldives, French Guiana
  • June (14): Botswana, Vietnam, Tuvalu, Hong Kong, Mauritius, Aruba, Saba, Senegal, Costa Rica, China, Chad, Solomon Islands, Morocco, French Guiana
  • July (10): Mauritius, Liechtenstein, US Virgin Islands, Dominica, Italy, Malta, El Salvador, Tanzania, St. Barthelemy, Martinique
  • August (15): Qatar, Niger, Mauritius, Chile, St. Barthelemy, Turkey, Thailand, Botswana, France, Bolivia, Paraguay, Martinique, Chad, Suriname, French Guiana

In addition to the three all-time cold records listed above, six nations or territories have set a monthly all-time cold record in 2023, for a total of nine monthly cold records:

  • Feb. (1): Montenegro
  • March (2): St. Eustatius, Martinique
  • June (1): Finland
  • August (2): French Polynesia, Montenegro

Hemispherical and continental temperature records through August 2023

Lowest temperature reliably recorded in January in the Southern Hemisphere: -51.2°C (-60.2°F) at Concordia, Antarctica, Jan. 31;
Highest temperature ever recorded in April in Europe: 38.8°C (101.8°F) at Cordoba, Spain, April 27;
Highest minimum temperature ever recorded in Africa for any month: 39.6°C (103.3°F) at Adrar, Algeria, July 6;
Highest temperature ever recorded in July in Europe: 48.2°C (118.8°F) at Jerzu and Lotzorai, Italy, July 24;
Highest minimum temperature ever recorded in July in Europe: 36.2°C (97.2°F) at Palermo, Italy, July 24;
Highest temperature ever recorded in Africa in August (tie): 50.4°C (122.7°F) at Agadir, Morocco, August 11;
Highest temperature ever recorded in the Southern Hemisphere in August (tie): 45.0°C (113°F) at Villamontes, Bolivia, August 23; and
Highest minimum temperature ever recorded in Oceania and in the whole Southern Hemisphere in August: 28.8°C (83.8°F) at Funafuti, Tuvalu, August 31, beating the record of 28.7°C set at August Nui, Tuvalu, on August 14.

Bob Henson contributed to this post.

Website visitors can comment on “Eye on the Storm” posts (see comments policy below). Sign up to receive notices of new postings here.

Source link